Mitigation measures to avoid or reduce air quality impacts from hydrokinetic energy development.
The following are examples of mitigation measures that could be applied to reduce project air quality impacts depending upon site- and project-specific conditions. Impacts to air quality are related to project emissions (e.g., fugitive dust, air pollutant releases). Many impacts can be reduced or avoided when considered during the siting and design phase.
Develop a final set of mitigation measures for the project in consultation with the appropriate tribal, federal, and state resource management agencies, and with stakeholders. Conduct these consultations as part of the project development process, preferably prior to final project siting and design.
Siting and Design Mitigation Measures
Siting and design considerations that mitigate impacts include:
Minimize the amount of disturbance and areas cleared of vegetation.
Stage construction to limit the disturbed area at any one time, whenever practical.
General Mitigation Measures
General mitigation practices and principles that could apply to any or all phases of a hydrokinetic energy project include:
Proper maintenance of heavy equipment, offshore vessels, and onshore vehicles to minimize air emissions of diesel engines.
Require emission control devices on drilling and other equipment and specify the use of low-sulfur fuels to reduce emissions.
Use dust abatement techniques on unpaved, unvegetated surfaces to minimize airborne fugitive dust during earthmoving activities; prior to clearing; before excavating, backfilling, compacting, or grading; and during blasting.
Post and enforce speed limits to reduce airborne fugitive dust from vehicular traffic.
Limit site access to authorized vehicles.
Revegetate disturbed areas as soon as possible after disturbance. (This should include interim revegetation along roadbeds, once heavy construction is completed.)
When possible, schedule surface-disturbing or dust-generating activities during periods of low winds to reduce fugitive dust.
Cover construction materials and stockpiled soils if they are a source of fugitive dust.
Cover storage piles at concrete batch plants if they are a source of fugitive dust.
Train workers to handle construction materials and debris during construction and disassembly to reduce fugitive emissions.
Keep soil moist while loading into dump trucks.
Keep soil loads below the freeboard of the truck.
Minimize drop heights when loaders dump soil into trucks.
Tighten gate seals on dump trucks.
Cover dump trucks before traveling on public roads.
When feasible, shut down idling vehicles and equipment.