Mitigation measures to avoid or reduce water resource impacts from oil and gas production.
The following are examples of mitigation measures that could be applied to reduce water resource impacts of a project depending upon site- and project-specific conditions. Impacts to water resources are related to the project footprint (e.g., land disturbance, erosion, changes in runoff patterns, and hydrological alterations), project emissions (e.g., sediment runoff and water releases), and resource use (e.g., water extraction). Many impacts can be reduced or avoided when considered during the siting and design phase.
Develop a final set of mitigation measures for any project in consultation with the appropriate federal resource management agencies and stakeholders. Conduct these consultations early in the project development process and preferably prior to final project siting and design.
Siting and Design Mitigation Measures
Siting and design considerations that mitigate impacts include:
Identify and avoid unstable slopes and local factors that can cause slope instability (groundwater conditions, precipitation, seismic activity, slope angles, and geologic structure).
Minimize the planned amount of land to be disturbed as much as possible. Use existing roads, borrow pits, and quarries.
Avoid streams, wetlands, and drainages where possible. Well pads should be developed outside of 100 year floodplains. Locate access roads to minimize stream crossings and to minimize impacts where crossings cannot be avoided.
Use special construction techniques in areas of steep slopes, erodible soils, and stream crossings.
Construct drainage ditches only where necessary.. Use appropriate structures at culvert outlets to prevent erosion.
Do not alter or restrict existing drainage systems, especially in sensitive areas such as erodible soils or steep slopes. Cross water bodies at right angles to the channel and/or at points of minimum impact.
General Mitigation Measures
General mitigation practices and principles that could apply to any or all phases of an oil and gas project include:
Apply erosion controls relative to possible soil erosion from vehicular traffic and during construction activities (e.g., jute netting, silt fences, and check dams).
Regularly monitor rights-of-way (ROWs), access roads, and other project areas for indications of erosion.
Use dust suppression techniques to minimize impacts of vehicular traffic and wind on roads and exposed soils.
Reclaim or apply protective covering (e.g., vegetative cover) on disturbed soils as quickly as possible.
Clean and maintain catch basins, drainage ditches, and culverts regularly.
Refuel in a designated fueling area that includes a temporary berm to limit the spread of any spill.
Use drip pans during refueling to contain accidental releases and under fuel pump and valve mechanisms of any bulk fueling vehicles parked at the project site.
Limit pesticide use to nonpersistent, immobile pesticides.
Project Phase-Specific Mitigation Measures
Mitigation measures specific to a particular phase of an oil and gas project include:
Save topsoil removed during construction and use to reclaim disturbed areas upon completion of construction activities.
Avoid creating excessive slopes during excavation and blasting operations.
Closely monitor construction near aquifer recharge areas to reduce potential contamination of the aquifer.
Return access roads and well pads to as near natural contours as feasible. Distribute topsoil stockpiled at the beginning of the project over the site during final reclamation. Stabilize all areas of disturbed soil using weed-free native shrubs, grasses, and forbs.
Reestablish the original grade and drainage pattern to the extent practicable.
Restore the banks of water bodies to their natural condition.
Backfill any foundations and trenches, preferably with excess excavation material generated during construction.
Keep equipment within the limits of the previously disturbed areas.